The literature review revealed that North Dakota scoria was included in an extensive soil stabilization study by Manz. The data is summarized in a table which indicates that safisfactory stabilization results from the following additions: 4,6 or 8 percent cement; 4 percent high calcium hydrated lime and 8 percent lignite fly ash; and 3 percent calcium hydrated lime and 4 percent cement. The results of studies led to the development of gradation recommendations. A table is presented of test results which indicates that cement is the only material which satisfies all the tests (unconfined compressive strength requirements & durability requirements). It also shows that lime is better than SS-1 for combining with scoria. The minimum additive ranges to satisfy strength, durability or both for the scoria are as follows: lime, 6-9 percent; cement, 4 percent and SS-1, 8 percent. Work is outlined which considers the use of amines to reduce the optimum water content of scoria, as well as the use of lime and cement to stabilize scoria. The results are summarized of tests of California Bearing Ratio with scoria with two different amines as well as cement lime and phosporous pentoxide. An extensive investigation of Bituminous stabilization of Wyoming Heat-Altered Shale is outlined, as well as a report of the use of Pierre Shale as aggregate (after firing to 2000 degrees F) to make concrete. Abstracts and bibliographic data are presented relating to the use of scoria in soil cement. The literature review leads to the conclusion that the use of cement alone with scoria has promise: the use of emulsion and asphalt cement should be investigated; firing of scoria in a rotary kiln to reduce the absorption should be tried. Preliminary tests reveal that a combination of lime, fly ash, scoria and soil holds promise for a 1-mile test road; Poz-O-Pac or soil cement will be most promising for oil-well haul roads.

  • Corporate Authors:

    University of North Dakota

    Grand Forks, ND  USA  58202
  • Authors:
    • Manz, O E
  • Publication Date: 1974-11

Media Info

  • Features: Figures; Tables;
  • Pagination: 24 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00097159
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Contract Numbers: 26-3378
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Nov 5 1975 12:00AM