The recent achievement of year-round navigation on the Great Lakes makes pertinent a survey of shipowners' costs and benefits resulting from that development. Success on the Lakes also provides new evidence of the probable benefits of parallel extensions of the season in the St. Lawrence Seaway. Following general discussions of the pros and cons of winter navigation, the paper describes the analytical techniques developed by the authors for predicting the economics of extending the operating season both on the Lakes and through the Seaway. The probable economic benefits accruing to each of several kinds of ships are shown. In the case of Great Lakes bulk carriers, the effect of changes in each of several key parameters (for example, bow shape, severity of winter, and ship ice class) is also shown. In addition to economics, the impact of ice navigation on energy utilization is estimated, and possible environmental dangers are considered. Overall, it is concluded that commercial users of Great Lakes and Seaway ships have strong incentives to encourage year-round navigation. Shipowners, while seeming to benefit less than their customers, also have good reason to move in the same direction.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, New York, New York, November 13-15, 1975.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers

    601 Pavonia Avenue
    Jersey City, NJ  United States  07306-2907
  • Authors:
    • Swift, P M
    • Benford, H
  • Publication Date: 1975-11

Media Info

  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: 13 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00127561
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
  • Report/Paper Numbers: #12
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Nov 18 1975 12:00AM