While pipelines may seem the obvious transportation method, the distances offshore, the water depths involved, and the heavy use of the North Sea for fishing and shipping all require thorough investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of pipelines. Another possible transportation method is to move the hydrocarbons through a mid-ocean loading terminal, adapting known offshore tanker loading techniques to this more hostile environment. The Phillips Norway Group considered several systems for its Ekofisk field. Among them were artificial harbors, multiple point mooring systems and single point mooring systems. As a part of this study weather data was accumulated from various meteorological and oceanographic sources as well as from the Phillips Group own drilling rigs operating in the central North Sea during the last few years. This data was analyzed and transport models were constructed for computer analysis to determine the theoretical level of production which could be loaded at a sea terminal. The results of these studies indicated that an acceptable level of operability could be expected and led to the decision to construct a sea loading terminal at the Ekofisk location to test the theory. The single point mooring concept was selected as the most promising technique from both the technical and economic viewpoints on the basis of the studies made as well as upon previous operating experience in other hostile locations. The transport models are discussed in this paper and the mooring and loading system is described in detail. The modifications made to conventional buoys and tankers to improve the operability in the North Sea are also discussed.

Media Info

  • Pagination: p. 1037-53

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00025679
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Arctic Institute of North America
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Mar 28 1974 12:00AM