There is a great deal of ambiguity surrounding the precise meaning of the term: integration. It is generally accepted to mean a high level of unification both between and within all of the operating modes of public transport -bus, tram, metro, train, etc. A system of operation is built up in which individual routes are complementary and where user perception is that of a homogeneous unit. The growth of policies in pursuit of integration is a phenomenon of the last 10-20 years. The paper covers two main themes: 1) the meaning of integration, its emergence as a policy instrument, organisational format, assessment of benefits arising; 2) relationship with regulation. Examples are given from the United Kingdom, West Germany, Scandinavia, the Netherlands and North America. There are also examples of the effects of deregulation in the developing world and some discussion of recent trends therein. This paper is presented in an abridged form. For the covering abstract of the seminar see TRIS 456300.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Public Transport Planning and Operation. Proceedings of Seminar J held at PTRC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, 15-18 July 1985, V P266.
  • Corporate Authors:

    PTRC Education and Research Services Limited

    110 Strand
    London WC2,   England 
  • Authors:
  • Conference:
  • Publication Date: 1985

Media Info

  • Pagination: p. 201

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00456303
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transport Research Laboratory
  • Report/Paper Numbers: Monograph
  • Files: ITRD, TRIS
  • Created Date: Jul 31 1986 12:00AM