Ice Conditions on the Dutch rivers and estuaries will be discussed, in view of recent engineering works that have been carried out. Winters are usually mild in the Netherlands; the proximity of the Gulf stream favorably affects both air temperatures and temperatures of the coastal waters. However, occasionally the country is under the influence of cold air masses from the European continent whereby freezing of surface waters may occur during a considerable time. The freezing of rivers and coastal waters has some great adverse effects. Among these are: (a) a rise in river stage with possibilities of breaching of river dikes: (b) forces of great magnitude on hydraulic structures; and (c) strong limitations for navigation. In recent years, engineering endeavors of major importance have been carried out in the river system that have changed flow and ice discharge conditions to a great extent. Among these are: a. The closing of the Zuiderzee. b. The building of three barrages in the river Phine. c. The deepening of the Rotterdam waterway and the development of Europort. d. The execution of the Delta project. This paper stresses, in particular, how ice conditions have affected design criteria for the Delta project. It may be observed without reservations, that ice problems have been a dominating factor in this project; among the problem areas are the ice formation on the newly formed fresh water lakes, the discharge of ice toward the North Sea and the technical implications for the design of the Haringvliet sluice. This paper concludes with a discussion on the methods and techniques that have been used to study the ice problems on the Dutch rivers, such as: a. Field observations. b. Use of analogue computers. c. Computation of ice forces and ice movements. d. Use of scale models in freeze-chambers to study the development of ice covers on gate structures.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Abstract of paper delivered at the First International Conference on "Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions" held at Trondheim, Norway, August 23-30, 1971
  • Corporate Authors:

    POAC Conference

  • Authors:
    • Gerritsen, F
  • Publication Date: 1971-8-23

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00025690
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Arctic Institute of North America
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Mar 28 1972 12:00AM