A study by the Eno Foundation providing data from more than 200 cities on zoning ordinances is summarized. Zoning ordinances are the major means of implementing public policy on off-street parking and loading. Results are presented on loading and unloading. The history of loading regulations is reviewed, as well as their rationale. Advantages and disadvantages of off-street loading facilities are summarized. Current off-street loading practices are described by city size and land use category, such as industrial and commercial land use. Most cities relate loading requirements to gross floor area devoted to a particular activity; the number of loading berths required is tied to the number of square feet used by an industry for a particular function. Loading requirements may be more general, specifying adequate for loading needs, or they may be related to frequency and volume of loading and unloading. The guidlines for determining the number of berths required vary widely from one city to another, the those guidelines vary with land use as well in about half the cities surveyed. Excerpts from ordinances from Phoenix, Arizona, appear, as do quotes from current law in San Mateo, California and Davenport, Iowa. The characteristics of truck trips that relate to loading needs are reviewed. These include the number of truck trips generated by such categories as convenience goods establishments, office buildings (both public and private), and the sizes of trucks prevalent among various commercial enterprises. The greatest obstacle to applying zoning controls to off-street loading may be the fact that most truck travel patterns depend on business parameters rather than on land use characteristics. Other zoning weaknesses and alternatives are explored, including permitting loading only at off-peak times, greater use of containerization technology, underground roadways, conveyor systems, and telephone expediting. Three possible directions for the effective use of zoning ordinances are described, along with several conditions that should be considered in writing any such ordinances.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Published in Urban Transportation Perspectives and Prospects.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Newcastle University, Australia

    Department of Community Programmes
    Newcastle, New South Wales 2308,   Australia 

    Eno Transportation Foundation

    P.O. Box 2055, Saugatuck Station
    Westport, CT  United States  06880-0055
  • Authors:
    • Kanaan, G E
    • Witheford, D K
  • Publication Date: 1982

Media Info

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00399710
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: HS-037 987
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Oct 31 1985 12:00AM