WINTER NAVIGATION IN THE BOTHNIAN BAY AND THE ICEWORTHINESS OF MERCHANT VESSELS

The first section covers winter climate and organization of sea transportation in Bothnia Bay. The winter freeze up begins about mid-December and lasts until mid-May with ice thickness ranging between 50 and 75 cm with a comparatively low salt content of 3 or 4 parts per thousand. The second part deals with the structural strengthening of vessels including the economics. The third section reviews ice damage, insurance, winter navigation fees, freight, icebreakers and a brief comparison with the railroads as an alternative solution. The author concludes that the winter transportation system of Bothnia Bay can certainly be managed better but it can scarcely be improved by lengthening the navigation season.

  • Corporate Authors:

    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

    Department of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
    Ann Arbor, MI  USA  48109
  • Authors:
    • Makinen, P
  • Publication Date: 1972-9

Media Info

  • Pagination: 31 p.
  • Serial:
    • Issue Number: 132

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00080031
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Contract Numbers: 1-35487
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jan 16 1975 12:00AM