The manual presents a state-of-the-art reviw of wetland functions. Functions covered include groundwater recharge and discharge, flood storage and desynchronization, shoreline anchoring and dissipation of erosive forces, sediment trapping, nutrient retention and removal, food chain support (detrital export), habitat for fish and wildlife, and active and passive recreation. The manual covers all wetland types in the 48 coterminous states, and uses the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service definition and classification system. It examines the validity, interactions, and possible significance thresholds for the functions, as well as documenting their underlying processes. With appropriate qualifying information, wetland types are ranked for each function. Wetland types ideal for each function are identified and illustrated. Potential impacts of highways upon each function are described and, where available, possible thresholds are given. Factors which regulate impact magnitude, such as location, design, watershed erodibility, flushing capacity, basin morphology, biotic sensitivity (resistance and resilience), recovery capacity, and refugia, are explained. Cumulative impacts and social factors on wetland function are documented: contiguity, shape, fetch, surface area, area of watershed and drainage area, stream order, gradient, land cover, soils, depositional environment, climate, wetland system, vegetation form, substrate, salinity, pH, hydroperiod, water level fluctuations, tidal range, scouring, velocity, depth, width, circulation, pool-riffle ratio, vegetation density, flow pattern, interspersion, human disturbance, turbidity, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and biotic diversity. (FHWA)

  • Corporate Authors:

    Center for Natural Areas

    P.O. Box 98, River Road
    South Gardiner, ME  United States  04359

    Federal Highway Administration

    Office of Research and Development, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
    Washington, DC  United States  20590
  • Authors:
    • Adamus, P R
    • Stockwell, L T
  • Publication Date: 1983-3

Media Info

  • Pagination: 181 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00388828
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: FHWA-IP-82-83 Final Rpt.
  • Contract Numbers: DTFH61-80-C-00086
  • Files: TRIS, USDOT
  • Created Date: Sep 28 1984 12:00AM