This paper discusses an ocean transportation scheme which does not encourage the major carrier to use conventional berths. There are more than six hundred vessels of 100,000 DWT and over in existence and of these 73% are tankers, 18% are combined carriers and 9% are bulk carriers. There are three hundred tankers and combined carriers in the over 200,000 DWT range, so that the major preoccupation with off-shore terminals lies for the present with the oil companies and the operators of oil-carrying ships. For obvious reasons, growth in dry bulk ship size has lagged behind tankers and the off-shore terminal for dry cargoes has a somewhat different connotation. Unless the shipowner is to face even greater congestion in the approaches to the main oil terminals and if the cost of oil to the ultimate consumer is to be minimized, the development of VLCC's in excess of 500,000 DWT is inevitable. From a shipowner's viewpoint, the establishment of off-shore terminals offers certain clear-cut advantages. Notable among these is the probability of reduced turn-around time, with considerable reduction in cost of operation of large vessels. The economic case can be made. Another favourable feature to the owner is the reduced danger of accident or grounding through not having to manoeuvre in congested, restricted and shallow waters. He will still need his improved navigational aids, maximum manouevrability, braking devices and the like to compensate for ship size, but his margins of safety will be increased. He may even anticipate some relief in insurance rates on hull and cargo. One of the major disadvantages of off-shore terminals to the shipowner may be a socio-economic one. The days when young men could be persuaded to join the merchant navy on the basis of "seeing the world" are disappearing, particularly in the tanker trades. The complement of a tanker operating between an offshore terminal in the Persian Gulf and another 40 miles off the U.S. East Coast have little if any opportunity to go ashore. Hence the need to provide increasingly attractive conditions of service in the way of accommodations, leave and other forms of compensation.

Media Info

  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: p. 19-37

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00054203
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Marine Technology Society
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 7 1974 12:00AM