Ship loading and unloading terminals built in the open sea have greatly contributed to the development of new sources of raw materials and to the increased utilization of large vessels. Offshore berths of various types for loading and unloading solid and liquid bulk cargoes are reviewed. Discussions are based on offshore terminals and artificial islands engineered by Soros Associates around the world. The terminals described are located up to 15 kilometers from shore. Some installations require the moving of the vessel during loading and unloading, others are designed to maintain the ship in one position. The vessel may be pulled up against breasting structures or may be positioned away from the dock face with the help of mooring systems. Some terminals allow more than one orientation, enabling the ship to head into the wind and waves under a variety of conditions. Criteria for locating and designing offshore terminals is discussed with such factors as berth availability, handling rates and ship sizes evaluated in terms of their influence on the transport system's cost. It is the conclusion of the author that the construction of offshore terminals is technologically feasible and in many instances offers important economic and ecological advantages.

Media Info

  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: p. 39-55

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00054199
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Marine Technology Society
  • Report/Paper Numbers: Proceeding
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 7 1974 12:00AM