The objectives of this study were to perform a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art of assessing and predicting the penetration of objects into the ocean floor, to recommend methods and procedures for immediate use for predicting such penetration, and to recommend future research and development that would significantly advance the state-of-the-art. Among the conceivable applications are the installation of underwater foundations, the driving of piles, the penetration of anchors for ships, buoys, and mines, and the assessment of ocean sediment properties from the dynamic penetration record of ocean floor penetrometers. For the purpose of this study, object penetration has been categorized according to the phases or periods during which driving forces are acting on the penetrating object as follows: free fall penetration, powered travel penetration, and dynamic penetration. For each of these cases, factors which are relevant to the determination of the penetration of objects of selected geometric shapes are discussed. These factors include free fall velocity and trajectory, hydrodynamic drag, energy considerations, soil bearing capacity, and other soil parameters. Several empirical penetration formulae are presented and reference is made to computer programmed solutions for calculating penetration. Based on this study, the author concluded that the controlling parameters in the penetration process are the impact velocity, the mass, geometry and structure of the penetrating object, the impact configuration, and the properties of the ocean bottom. The conditions and circumstances of each particular problem require close examination to determine the most applicable solution approach. Generally, the methods discussed in this report provide an adequate determination of impact velocity and, given that other parameters are known to a desirable degree of accuracy, a reliable estimation of the penetration can be determined.

Media Info

  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: p. 167-208

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00051159
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: National Maritime Research Center, Galveston
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Feb 28 1974 12:00AM