The results of three years of model tests, full-scale experiments, and technical design studies conducted in response to a national need for the development of commercial ice-transiting marine transportation systems are presented. This need is briefly documented in terms of the required transport of Great Lakes coal and Arctic crude oil to the year 2000. The technical focus of the paper is directed toward ice impact loads on the hull of commercial ships and methods to reduce the resistance of bulk carriers in ice. Ice impact loads were recorded for two years aboard the ore carrier Leon Fraser operating between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. The techniques of dimensional analysis were applied to these data to develop predictor equations which give ice forces as a function of ship form, speed, ice thickness, and ice strength. A series of icebreaking model tests was also performed on Great Lakes ore carriers and a predictor equation was developed which incorporated length, beam, and stern angle variation. Results of experiments directed toward the reduction of ship resistance in ice fields are also presented. This three-phase program included: model tests of various concepts to reduce ship resistance in broken ice-clogged channels, design and development of an air coating system, and full-scale testing of this system as installed in the Leon Fraser. Scenarios describing technical events leading to year-round commercial ship operations in the Great Lakes and Arctic regions are presented as well.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Presented at the SNAME Annual Meeting, New York, N.Y., Nov, 14-16, 1974.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers

    601 Pavonia Avenue
    Jersey City, NJ  United States  07306-2907
  • Authors:
    • Levine, G H
    • Voelker, R P
    • Mentz, P B
  • Publication Date: 1974-11

Media Info

  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: 26 p.
  • Serial:
    • Issue Number: 8

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00071647
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Nov 12 1974 12:00AM