Particle number emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles in Beijing, China

Humans are more likely to be exposed to ultrafine particles (UFPs) emitted by light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) in urban road traffic, which can cause serious bodily harm. In this study, the authors conducted on-road measurement of the Particle Number (PN) emissions from 18 China-3, China-4, and China-5 LDGVs on representative roads in Beijing. To clarify the impact of key parameters (standards, driving conditions, and technology) on the PN emissions, they conducted a comprehensive analysis of the emission results. The authors found the PN emission factors (EFs) of port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles have declined considerably under stricter standards. Furthermore, they found the average EF of China-5 LDGVs with gasoline direct injection (GDI) was 10 times that of PFI vehicles, and the PN EFs of PFI vehicles increase as the age of the engine increases (R² = 0.59). In different operating conditions, the PN EFs of all test vehicles under highway driving conditions were lower than those under non-highway driving conditions (6.5%–82.0%). The PN EFs of PFI LDGVs going uphill are 1.4–2.8 times those when going downhill. The PN EFs of LDGVs under start-up were 18–47% higher than under hot-running. PN emissions were high under positive engine power and increased with vehicle specific power. The dilution ratio has a significant impact on the test results, especially in a higher vehicle specific power interval, indicating that a high dilution ratio may lead to deviation of test values. Further research needs to determine the optimal dilution ratio to minimize test deviation. This study provides important data support for PN emission control. The optimal upper limit of the primary dilution ratio should be further studied and specified as a standard.


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  • Accession Number: 01767461
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Feb 11 2021 8:05PM