Assessing the Effect of Countdown Featured TOR Signal on Drivers in Automated Driving Mode Change

In conditional automated driving, drivers may be required starting manual driving from automated driving mode after take-over request (TOR). The objective of the study was to investigate different TOR features for drivers to engage in manual driving effectively in terms of reaction time, preference, and situation awareness (SA). Five TOR features, including four features using countdown, were designed and evaluated, consisted of combinations of different modalities and codes. Results revealed the use of non-verbal sound cue (beep) yielded shorter reaction time while participants preferred verbal sound cue (speech). Drivers' SA was not different for TOR features, but the level of SA was affected by different aspects of SA. The results may provide insights into designing multimodal TOR along with drivers' behavior during take-over tasks.


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  • Accession Number: 01766794
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Feb 10 2021 3:19PM