Effects of explanation-based knowledge regarding system functions and driver’s roles on driver takeover during conditionally automated driving: A test track study

The present study was designed to examine the influence of explanation-based knowledge regarding system functions and the driver’s role in conditionally automated driving (Level 3, as defined in SAE J3016). In particular, the authors studied how safely and successfully drivers assume control of the vehicle when encountering situations that exceed the automation parameters. This examination was conducted through a test-track experiment. Thirty-two younger drivers (mean age = 37.3 years) and 24 older drivers (mean age = 71.1 years) participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Adopting a between-participants design, in each experiment the participants were divided into two age- and sex-matched groups that were given differing levels of explanation-based knowledge concerning the system limitations of automated driving. The only information given to the less-informed groups was that, during automated driving, drivers may be required to occasionally assume control of the vehicle. The well-informed groups were given the same information, as well as details regarding the auditory-visual alerts produced by the human–machine interface (HMI) during requests to intervene (RtIs), and examples of situations where RtIs would be issued. Ten and nine RtI events were staged for each participant in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively; the participants performed a non-driving-related task while the automated driving system was functioning. For both experiments it was found that, for all RtI events, more participants in the well-informed groups than the less-informed groups successfully assumed control of the vehicle. These results suggest that, in addition to providing information regarding the possible occurrence of RtIs, explanations of HMI and RtI-related situations are effective for helping both younger and older drivers safely and successfully negotiate such events.


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  • Accession Number: 01766169
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jan 6 2021 3:10PM