The Takeover Conundrum: Level 3 Vehicle Automation Behavioral Study

This study analyzes the safety aspects of integrating level 3 (L3) Automated Driving System (ADS) on public roads. According to the Society of Automotive Engineers, L3 ADS is defined as a driving system capable of sustaining driving functions within its operational domain with the expectation that the fallback ready user is receptive to any request to intervene. The time it takes the fallback ready user to regain the control of the vehicle from when the ADS posts the fallback request to when the human driver intervenes is known as the takeover time, including perception, cognition, and motor-readiness. Previous research suggests that neither perception nor motor-readiness changes significantly from one individual to another; hence takeover time is mainly dependent on the cognition phase of the reaction. This study utilizes two surveys to evaluate the elemental personality traits of the drivers and see how they affect the takeover times across driving style, age, and gender. The goal is to identify which group(s) of human drivers are the safest drivers to serve as the early adopters of L3 ADS. It was discovered that the personality traits of the need for arousal, need for learning, conscientiousness, and win-at-all-costs all have an impact on the average take-over times, whereas emotional instability and need for body resources do not have a significant impact on it. Additionally, it was found that women age 31 to 35 years are the most cautious drivers and perhaps the most suitable group for early adoption of L3 ADS on public roads.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Features: Figures; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 19p

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01764203
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: TRBAM-21-02788
  • Files: TRIS, TRB, ATRI
  • Created Date: Dec 23 2020 11:22AM