Three-dimensional flow structure and string cavitation in a fuel injector and their effects on discharged liquid jet

Two kinds of cavitation may occur in mini-sac type diesel injectors. The first is geometrical cavitation, which can usually be seen as a film-like structure in the nozzle. The second is the filament-like string cavitation. Both types of cavitation are known to affect fuel spray characteristics, although the effects of geometrical cavitation and that of string cavitation have not been individually clarified. Moreover, the mechanism behind string cavitation occurrence is still unclear. String cavitation usually occurs at low needle lift, which might indicate the existence of a vortex ring flow in the sac. However, because of the difficulty in precise flow measurement of the three-dimensional flow structure in the sac, the link between vortex ring flow and string cavitation occurrence in the sac has not been proven. In this study, high-speed imaging of string cavitation, geometrical cavitation, and discharged liquid jet of an enlarged three-hole mini-sac diesel fuel injector was conducted to individually clarify the effects of string cavitation and geometrical cavitation on the discharged liquid jet angle. Furthermore, tomographic–stereo particle image velocimetry was carried out on the sac. The experiments were conducted at two different needle lifts, to clarify the link between needle lifts and flow structure in the sac, as well as how it affects string cavitation occurrence and liquid jet angle. The results confirmed that at low needle lift, vortex ring flow forms in the sac, which may induce helical flow in the nozzle, resulting in a large jet angle. Vortex strength varies with time, and string cavitation occurs when the vortex is particularly strong. As a result, the magnitude of the jet angle increase at low needle lift is enhanced when string cavitation occurs. At high needle lift, flow pattern in the sac becomes relatively uniform, which makes it harder for string cavitation to form.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Web
  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: pp 243-256
  • Serial:

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Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01761213
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Dec 2 2020 3:07PM