Sustainable utilization of bauxite residue (Red Mud) as a road material in pavements: A critical review

Sustainable utilization of the bauxite residue (red mud) generated from the alumina refining has recently increased due to increased environmental concerns because of its high alkalinity and problematic pollutants when placed in landfills. This paper attempts to review recent research findings of utilizing red mud as a road material in pavement structures in literature, including road bases and asphalt mixtures. Previous laboratory investigations indicated that red mud is feasible to be used as a raw material in road bases with satisfactory unconfined compressive strength (UCS), frost resistance and durability performance, but their durability during the service life of the pavement is still unclear. The incorporation of red mud in asphalt mastics was found to be able to improve its stiffness, such as softening point, complex modulus, and viscosity. In terms of asphalt mixtures, replacing limestone filler in mixtures by red mud resulted in some positive effects on mechanical behaviors, high bulk density and good rutting resistance. However, the moisture susceptibility and raveling resistance of asphalt mixtures became relatively worse because of the addition of red mud. Referring to this overview, it is necessary to qualify the long-term service performance of road base materials prepared with red mud by using laboratory accelerating evaluation or road trials. For asphalt mixtures prepared with red mud, how to improve durability, in particular moisture resistance, will be a future research focus. In addition, the influence of red mud on cracking resistance at low temperature, fatigue properties and long-term durability of asphalt mixtures is still needed to be further explored.


  • English

Media Info

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01760992
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Nov 12 2020 3:26PM