Towards enhancing sustainability: A novel approach for reducing carbon emission during the transportation of Zamzam water by pilgrims during Hajj and Umrah

Millions of people visit Makkah for Hajj and Umrah as part of Muslims religious activities. One of the gifts people take home with them to friends and family is the holy water of Zamzam. Currently water is packaged in 5-Litre special containers to be transported for that purpose. Most pilgrims use air transportation and carry with them Zamzam water gift. This paper explores the carbon emission currently produced by airlines by this excess weight and the possibility of reducing carbon emission by replacing the air transportation of water by other means using land and sea alternatives. This paper has focused on main cities and airports of the world where pilgrims travel from and to. The results indicate that more than 81 thousand tonnes of CO₂ could be saved annually with an estimated reduction of more than 96% tonnes of CO₂.


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  • Accession Number: 01751128
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jul 28 2020 3:07PM