Interacting with Android Auto and Apple CarPlay when driving: The effect on driver performance: A simulator study

This study assessed the impact on driver performance of interacting with two in-vehicle information and entertainment systems, Android Auto and Apple CarPlay, using four performance measures: reaction time, driving behavior, eyes-off road and self-reported performance. It also compared the results with other forms of driver impairment in previous studies. Twenty regular Android users took part in the Android Auto trial and twenty regular Apple users participated in the Apple CarPlay trial. Each participant completed three 20 minute drives in TRL’s DigiCar simulator using voice-enabled and touch-enabled control. The route was divided into sections and participants performed music, navigation, texting and calling tasks during the drive. Compared with the control drive, participants in both trials showed a reduction in average speed, increased headway deviation and larger deviation of lane position during most tasks; the effects were greater when using touch contols. Eye gaze measures indicated that participants did not meet National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) criteria for most of the tasks when using touch controls for both systems, but met the criteria when using voice control. Self-reported data suggested that participants found touch interaction to be more difficult and distracting than voice interaction. Most importantly, reaction time to an event on the road ahead was significantly higher when selecting music through Spotify while using Android Auto and Apple CarPlay. Participants also failed to react more to events on the road ahead when engaging with either Android Auto or Apple CarPlay. Comparison with previous driver impairment studies showed that the increased reaction time when interacting with either system using touch was higher than previously measured forms of impairment, including texting and hand-held calls.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Edition: Published Project Report
  • Features: Figures; Photos; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 55p

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01737598
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 9781913246341
  • Report/Paper Numbers: PPR948
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 23 2020 3:58PM