The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed. (ERA citation 06:014368)

  • Corporate Authors:

    Hittman Associates, Incorporated

    9190 Red Branch Road
    Columbia, MD  United States  21043

    Department of Energy

    1000 Independence Avenue, SW
    Washington, DC  United States  20585
  • Authors:
    • Sullivan, D
    • Morse, T
    • Patel, P
    • Patel, S
    • Bondar, J
  • Publication Date: 1980-12

Media Info

  • Pagination: 291 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00337443
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: National Technical Information Service
  • Contract Numbers: AC02-79ET25420
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Aug 15 1981 12:00AM