A Bivariate Probit Analysis of Child Passenger’s Sitting Behaviour and Restraint Use in Motor Vehicle

Motor vehicle injuries are a leading cause of death among children worldwide, though many of these deaths are preventable. Buckling young children in age- and size-appropriate car seats, booster seats, or seat belts and also seating them in appropriate position can lead to a significant reduction of serious and fatal injuries. This study investigated sitting behavior and restraint use among child passengers through cross-sectional observational surveys conducted in Kumasi, Ghana. A bivariate probit model was developed for simultaneous determination of the contributing factors influencing child passenger’s sitting behavior and restraint use. The results showed that 26% of the child passengers observed were occupying the front seat and the prevalence rate of restraint use was 4.5%. The developed bivariate probit model clearly highlights the existence of interrelationship between child passenger’s sitting position and restraint use. The key factors simultaneously influencing child passenger’s sitting position and restraint use include vehicle type, driver’s gender, driver’s belt use, child’s age, and the presence of other child or adult passenger. Furthermore, time of day and day of week also influence child passenger sitting behavior but not their restraint use. These findings provide insight for better understanding of child transporting practices and the contributing factors influencing their sitting behavior and restraint use. The findings also highlight the need for policy makers to design effective countermeasures to promote rear sitting and restraint use among child passengers.


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  • Accession Number: 01711133
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jun 4 2019 3:05PM