Effect of injection timing on combustion and soot formation in a direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with butanol

Ever tighter restrictions on pollutant emissions, energy security and a continuous drive for improving fuel economy have extended the range of application for direct injection in spark ignition engines and promoted the use of alternative fuels. Direct injection features higher soot formation compared to external mixture preparation, and therefore, intensive research is performed for understanding the processes related to this pollutant category. This study looked into the effect of injection timing in a wall-guided direct injection spark ignition engine when gasoline was completely replaced with n-butanol. Thermodynamic measurements were coupled with optical investigations that provided improved insight into local distribution of diffusive flames during late combustion stages. These data were correlated with exhaust gas measurements of CO, HC and NOx, as well as opacity. The optimum setting for injection timing was found to be a compromise between intake airflow velocity and piston positioning that influenced wall impingement. Late injection resulted in reduced soot but higher HC emissions, as well as lower performance compared to the optimum point. Early fuel delivery had roughly the same effect on indicated mean effective pressure and stability, with the downside of increased opacity. These observations were detailed with data obtained through cycle-resolved imaging that showed different integral luminosities with respect to injection phasing and confirmed that fuel impingement on the piston crown is the main factor of influence for soot formation. Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy in the late combustion phase was also applied in repetitive mode in order to provide better insight into cyclic variability of the emission intensity in the range specific for carbonaceous structures.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Web
  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: pp 490-504
  • Serial:

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01717352
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 24 2019 4:57PM