NOₓ emissions in direct injection diesel engines: Part 2: model performance for conventional, prolonged ignition delay, and premixed charge compression ignition operating conditions

Investigations from recent years have shown that at operating conditions characterized by long ignition delays and resulting large proportions of premixed combustion, the NOₓ emission trend does not correspond to the (usually) postulated correlation with an appropriately defined (adiabatic) burnt flame temperature. This correlation, however, is the cornerstone of most published NOₓ models for direct injection diesel engines. In this light, a new phenomenological NOₓ model has been developed in Brückner et al. (Part 1), which considers NOₓ formation from products of premixed and diffusion combustion and accounts for compression heating of post-flame gases, and describes NOₓ formation by thermal chemistry. In this study (Part 2), the model is applied to predict NOₓ emissions from two medium-speed direct injection diesel engines of different size and at various operating conditions. Single parameter variations comprising sweeps of injection pressure, start of injection, load, exhaust gas recirculation rate, number of injections, and end-of-compression temperature are studied on a single-cylinder engine. In addition, different engine configurations (valve timing, turbocharger setup) and injection parameters of a marine diesel engine are investigated. For both engines and all parameter variations, the model prediction shows good agreement. Most notably, the model captures the turning point of the NOₓ emission trend with increasing ignition delay (first decreasing, then increasing NOₓ) for both engines. The differentiation in the physical treatment of the products of premixed and diffusion with increasing ignition delay showed to be essential for the model to capture the trend-reversal. Specifically, the model predicted that peak NOₓ formation rates in diffusion zones decrease with increasing ignition delay, whereas for the same change in ignition delay, peak formation rates in premixed zones increase. This is caused by the high energy release in short time, causing a strong compression of existing premixed combustion product zones that mix at a slower rate and have less time to mix, significantly increasing their temperature. In contrast, the model under-predicts NOₓ emissions for very low oxygen concentrations, in particular below 15 vol.%, which is attributed to the simple thermal NOₓ kinetic mechanism used. It is concluded that the new model is able to predict NOₓ emissions for conventional diesel combustion and for long ignition delay operating conditions, where a substantial amount of heat is released in premixed mode.

Language

  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Web
  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: pp 528-541
  • Serial:

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01713193
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 24 2019 4:50PM