Quantification of knock benefits from reformate and cooled exhaust gas recirculation using a Livengood–Wu approach with detailed chemical kinetics

In this work, a simple methodology was implemented to predict the onset of knock in spark-ignition engines and quantify the benefits of two practical knock mitigation strategies: cooled exhaust gas recirculation and syngas blending. Based on the results of this study, both cooled exhaust gas recirculation and the presence of syngas constituents in the end-gas substantially improved the knock-limited compression ratio of the engine. At constant load, 25% exhaust gas recirculation increased the knock-limited compression ratio from 9.0 to 10.8:1 (0.07 compression ratio per 1% exhaust gas recirculation) due to lower end-gas temperature and reactant (fuel and oxygen) concentrations. At exhaust gas recirculation rates above 43%, higher intake temperature outweighed the benefits of lower end-gas reactant concentration. At constant intake temperature, cooled exhaust gas recirculation was significantly more effective at all exhaust gas recirculation rates (0.10 compression ratio per 1% exhaust gas recirculation), and no diminishing returns or optimum was observed. Both hydrogen and carbon monoxide were also predicted to improve knock by reducing end-gas reactivity, likely through the conversion of high-reactivity hydroxy-radicals to less reactive peroxy-radicals. Hydrogen increased the knock-limited compression ratio by 1.1 per volume percent added at constant energy content. Carbon monoxide was less effective, increasing the knock-limited compression ratio by 0.38 per volume percent added. Combining 25% cooled exhaust gas recirculation with reformate produced from rich combustion at an equivalence ratio of 1.3 resulted in a predicted increase in the knock-limited compression ratio of 3.5, which agreed well with the published experimental engine data. The results show the extent to which syngas blending and cooled exhaust gas recirculation each contribute separately to knock mitigation and demonstrate that both can be effective knock mitigation strategies. Together, these solutions have the potential to increase the compression ratio and efficiency of spark-ignition engines.

Language

  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Web
  • Features: References;
  • Pagination: pp 717-731
  • Serial:

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01712352
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 24 2019 4:46PM