Simulation of Kelvin wakes in optical images of rough sea surface

Kelvin wake is one of the common wakes generated by moving ships and contains rich information about ships. In this paper, free wave elevations of Kelvin wake are calculated based on the Michell thin ship theory combined with a point source perturbation model. The probability density function of sea surface slopes is introduced to calculate the specular reflection of sunlight and skylight and the refraction of scattered light underwater. Satellite-detected Kelvin wakes are then simulated by adding surface specular reflectance and water-leaving reflectance. Simulation results agree well with satellite measurements. The specular reflection of sunlight is the decisive factor affecting the features of Kelvin wakes according to the simulation results. The main factors that influence the specular reflection of sunlight, such as the incident direction and observation direction, ship parameters, and background environment, are discussed. This study is helpful for wake detection and provides a preliminary theoretical method for the retrieval of ship information.


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  • Accession Number: 01709633
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 23 2019 3:04PM