High Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Asphalt Mixes for Low Volume Roads

The Florida Department of Transportation yearly maintenance and rehabilitation activities include milling and resurfacing of approximately 2,000 lane miles of roadway, with an average resurfacing depth of about 2.1 inches (55 mm). These activities result in the generation and accumulation of roughly 1.8 million tons of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) each year. The use of elevated quantities of RAP in low volume roads provides an environmentally responsible solution to the accumulated RAP surplus in some urban areas, while at the same time offering an economical pavement maintenance and rehabilitation option to local agencies facing budget constraints. The objective of this project was to develop mix design guidelines for mixtures with high RAP contents to be used on low volume roads (average daily traffic < 750 vehicles). To accomplish this objective, three types of high RAP mixtures were considered, having RAP contents ranging from 60 percent–100 percent: hot, cold with emulsion, and cold with foamed binder. Performance testing included moisture susceptibility, rutting, intermediate temperature cracking, durability, and stiffness. The hot recycled mixtures showed good moisture susceptibility and cracking resistance, especially when recycling agents were incorporated. The cold recycled mixtures showed poor moisture susceptibility and durability characteristics, which were alleviated when hydrated lime or Portland cement was incorporated in the emulsified and foamed mixtures, respectively. Most hot recycled mixtures, and all the cold recycled mixtures, exhibited poor rutting behavior. A first-cost and life-cycle cost analysis demonstrated significant savings when increased amounts of RAP were incorporated in the recycled mixtures.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Edition: Final Report
  • Features: Appendices; Figures; Photos; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 427p

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01695995
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Contract Numbers: BE194
  • Created Date: Feb 14 2019 7:48AM