Total life cycle emissions of post-Panamax containerships powered by conventional fuel or natural gas

This study proposes an easy-to-apply method, the Total Life Cycle Emission Model (TLCEM), to calculate the total emissions from shipping and help ship management groups assess the impact on emissions caused by their capital investment or operation decisions. Using TLCEM, the authors present the total emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) during the 25-yr life cycle of 10 post-Panamax containerships under slow steaming conditions. The life cycle consists of steel production, shipbuilding, crude oil extraction and transportation, fuel refining, bunkering, and ship operation. The authors calculate total emissions from containerships and compare the effect of emission reduction by using various fuels. The results can be used to differentiate the emissions from various processes and to assess the effectiveness of various reduction approaches. Critical pollutants and GHGs emitted from each process are calculated. If the containerships use heavy fuel oil (HFO), emissions of CO2 total 2.79 million tonnes (Mt), accounting for 95.37% of total emissions, followed by NOx and SOx emissions,which account for 2.25% and 1.30%, respectively.The most significant emissions are from the operation of the ship and originate from the main engine (ME).When fuel is switched to 100% natural gas (NG), SOx, PM10, and CO2 emissions show remarkable reductions of 98.60%, 99.06%, and 21.70%, respectively. Determining the emission factor of each process is critical for estimating the total emissions. The estimated emission factors were compared with the values adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).The proposed TLCEM may contribute to more accurate estimates of total life cycle emissions from global shipping. Implications: The authors propose a total life cycle emissions model for 10 post-Panamax container ships. Using heavy fuel oil, emissions of CO2 total 2.79 Mt, accounting for approximately 95% of emissions, followed by NOx and SOx emissions. Using 100% natural gas, SOx, PM10, and CO2 emissions reduce by 98.6%, 99.1%, and 21.7%, respectively. NOx emissions increase by 1.14% when running a dual fuel engine at low load in natural gas mode.


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  • Accession Number: 01695306
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jan 30 2019 3:00PM