A Questionnaire to Assess Parental Perception of Barriers Towards Active Commuting to School (PABACS): Reliability and Validity

Parental barriers are a key factor to determine physical activity behaviors, such as active commuting to school in young people. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of a questionnaire which addresses parental barriers towards active commuting to school. This paper describes the development, following the Delphi method, and the validation of a Likert-scale questionnaire of 23 items (Parental Perception of Barriers towards Active Commuting to School (PABACS)) designed to determine the main parental barriers. These barriers are categorized into 3 scales (general, walking, and cycling barriers) and the overall questionnaire. A total of 207 parents of children and adolescents in Granada (Spain) in 2016 completed the survey on two occasions. The internal consistency was examined using Cronbach's alpha tests and Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) and Kappa index were used to assess the reliability of the different questions. To examine the predictive validity, spearman's rho tests were conducted. The questionnaire showed a good internal consistency for the overall questionnaire and for the three scales. The Intra-Class Correlation values were moderate. The overall questionnaire and the general and walking barriers scales showed a moderate validity to predict active modes of commuting, as well as the items ‘distance’ and ‘walking convenience’. This study provides a reliable tool to assess parental barriers towards active commuting to school, which will help future studies to identify the most important barriers on which institutions have to focus to increase active commuting to school rates.


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  • Accession Number: 01691075
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jan 11 2019 3:03PM