The effectiveness of parking policies to reduce parking demand pressure and car use

Research in parking behavior and policy has largely focused on topics related to parking price, but the impacts of non-price-related parking variables on travel behavior have rarely been examined. As a consequence, transportation and parking policymakers know very little regarding the effectiveness of non-pricing strategies such as parking access and egress time in achieving desirable policy goals, including reducing car use and parking demand in overcrowded areas. Moreover, previous research has often failed to account for the interaction between parking-choice and mode-choice behavior, which can lead to biased model results and potentially misleading policy implications. To address these issues, this paper calibrates a joint model of travel mode and parking location choice, using revealed-preference survey data on commuters to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, a large university campus. Key policy variables examined include parking cost, parking search time, and egress time. The authors estimated a parking price elasticity value of -0.89. The results showed that travelers were very sensitive to changes in egress time, even more so than parking cost, but they were less sensitive to changes in search time. Moreover, the authors found that travelers respond to parking policies primarily by shifting parking locations rather than switching travel mode. Finally, the authors' policy simulation results imply some synergistic effects between policy measures, that is, when combined together (pricing and policy measures that reduce search and egress time) they shape parking demand more than the sum of their individual effects if implemented in isolation.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • This paper was sponsored by TRB committee ABE50 Standing Committee on Transportation Demand Management.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Transportation Research Board

  • Authors:
    • Yan, Xiang
    • Levine, Jonathan
    • Marans, Robert
  • Conference:
  • Date: 2019


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Features: Figures; Maps; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 7p

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01697876
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: 19-04339
  • Files: TRIS, TRB, ATRI
  • Created Date: Dec 7 2018 9:40AM