Opioids in Oral Fluid of Spanish Drivers

Driving under the influence of certain drugs is not allowed, and roadside drug testing is being considered an important tool for deterring driving under the influence of them. This study aimed to assess the presence and concentration of opioids, as well as their combined use with other drugs (laboratory confirmation after the on-road screening) in Spanish drivers between 2011 and 2016. In Spain, mandatory roadside breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing (screening) are carried out by the Traffic Police using Drager Alcotest 6810 device, and Drager DrugTest 5000, DrugWipe, or AlereTM DDS2 Mobile Test System. For positive cases in the period covered, 65,244, confirmation analysis and quantification using chromatographic techniques were performed. Opioids were confirmed in 8.6% of positive cases, being 7.2% positives to 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), 6.5% to morphine, 5.4% to codeine, and 4.1% to methadone. The majority of the confirmed tests for morphine (96.5%), codeine (88.4%) and methadone (81.9) were also positive for 6-AM. The presence of other drugs, particularly cocaine and cannabis, was very common. Concentration values reached important levels. Positive results for morphine (0.1%), codeine (0.6%) or methadone (0.4%) alone were very infrequent. Drivers with a confirmed positive roadside test for morphine, codeine, and methadone had also consumed heroin and/or other illicit drugs, such as cocaine and/or THC, and at relevant concentrations. Improving interventions to combat the problem of driving under the influence of driving-impairing substances is a priority.


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  • Accession Number: 01684499
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Oct 12 2018 3:12PM