An integrated coal liquefaction process development unit was operated to demonstrate The Lummus Clean Fuels From Coal (CFFC) Process. The objectives were as follows: Establishment of integrated operation, demonstration of solvent self-sufficiency on equilibrium solvent, life testing of catalyst, process variable studies, and comparative catalyst performance against a reference coal liquefaction catalyst. The extent of attainment of the objectives may be summarized as follows: Integrated operation was achieved, solvent self-sufficiency was demonstrated, catalyst life test data were obtained, process variable studies were completed, and comparative catalyst activity data were obtained. The major reactor feature of the CFFC process is an approach to plug flow of the coal paste through a series of expanded-bed reactors. This flow regime provides the best kinetics for heteroatom removal, emphasizes distillate (400 to 850 exp 0 F) production and thereby minimizes hydrogen consumption at nearly complete coal conversion. This was amply demonstrated during the process variable study, where the maximum chemical hydrogen consumption was 3.7 weight percent for the most reaction conditions. For the less severe conditions appropriate for this process, chemical hydrogen consumption was approximately 3 wt%. The catalyst life study showed that a +400 exp 0 F boiler fuel product containing 0.3% sulfur, 0.5% nitrogen and 0.1% ash is made with a catalyst consumption of 1.21 pounds per ton of coal. The hydrogen consumption of about 3 percent required to make this clean liquid product is lower than for any other one or two-stage coal liquefaction process. A part of the process variable study, high-viscosity runs, utilizing minimum recycle, established the upper through-put limit in the first reactor to be 3.6 to 3.9 lb coal/hr/lb catalyst, depending on the catalyst shape. (ERA citation 05:019968)

  • Corporate Authors:

    Lummus Company

    Bloomfield, NJ  United States 

    Department of Energy

    1000 Independence Avenue, SW
    Washington, DC  United States  20585
  • Authors:
    • Schindler, H D
    • Long, R H
  • Publication Date: 1979-12

Media Info

  • Pagination: 171 p.

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00318278
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: National Technical Information Service
  • Contract Numbers: EF-76-C-01-2514
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Sep 16 1980 12:00AM