ACCIDENT MECHANISMS AND PROTECTION MEASURES IN ROAD ACCIDENTS

UNFALLMECHANISMEN UND SICHERUNGSEINRICHTUNGEN BEI VERKEHRSUNFAELLEN

This report investigates the crash phase in which these factors leading to the accident are beyond control. Using the units force-direction-time, the redistribution of energy in material deformation in the vehicle and human body are described. The frontal wall impact is used as a model. The deceleration characteristics of the vehicle occupants without seat belts are tabulated. The paper lists and comments on the various types of injury resulting from frontal collision and safety criteria for windscreens are described. When considering the frequency and severity of injuries statistically, the steering unit poses the highest risk. It is established that the deformation characteristics of a vehicle according to force-direction-time must be compatible with the deformation characteristics of a taut seat belt, so that the occupants suffer no delay peaks and move in the deformation path of the vehicle in addition to the extension path of the seat belt in a synchronised manner and reduce the effective deceleration forces. All the following factors determine separately the pattern of injury: direction of impact from the collision, collision speed, deformation and deceleration characteristics of the vehicle, composition of the counter-points of the interior and their deformation with time related to the biomechanical tolerance of the variable human body as a whole and in its components and organs and finally, the question whether safety belts and head supports were used or not, and related to this, whether the occupants were thrown out resulting in a five-fold danger to life. Of 100 car occupants treated in hospital, 72 have head injuries, 33 injuries to the thorax region, stomach or pelvis and 26 injuries to their lower extremities. (TRRL)

  • Availability:
  • Corporate Authors:

    Springer Verlag

    Heidelberger Platz 3
    1000 Berlin 33,   Germany 
  • Authors:
    • Goegler, E
  • Publication Date: 1978

Language

  • German

Media Info

  • Features: Figures; Photos; Tables;
  • Pagination: p. 51-73
  • Serial:

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00309295
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (BASt)
  • ISBN: 3-540-08598-X
  • Files: ITRD, TRIS
  • Created Date: Jun 9 1980 12:00AM