Practice makes better – Learning effects of driving with a multi-stage collision warning

Advanced driver assistance systems like (forward) collision warnings can increase traffic safety. As safety-critical situations (especially in urban traffic) can be diverse, integrated adaptive systems (such as multi-stage warnings) need to be developed and examined in a variety of use cases over time instead of the more common approach of testing only one-time effectiveness in the most relevant use case. Thus, this driving simulator experiment investigated a multi-stage collision warning in partially repetitive trials (T) of various safety-critical situations (scenarios confronting drivers with hazards in form of pedestrians, obstacles or preceding vehicles). Its output adapted according to the drivers’ behavior in two warning stages (W1 – warning for moderate deceleration in less critical situations; W2 – urgent warning for strong, fast braking in more critical situations). To analyze how much drivers benefit from the assistance when allowed practice with it, the driving behavior and subjective ratings of 24 participants were measured over four trials. They comprised a baseline without assistance (T1) and three further trials with assistance – a learning phase repeating the scenarios from T1 twice (T2?+?T3) and a concluding transfer drive with new scenarios (T4). As expected, the situation criticality in the urgent warning (W2) scenarios was rated higher than in the warning (W1) scenarios. While the brake reaction time differed more between the W1 scenarios, the applied brake force differed more between the W2 scenarios. However, the scenario factor often interacted with the trial factor. Since in later warning stages reaction time reductions become finite, the reaction strength gains importance. Overall the drivers benefited from the assistance. Both warning stages led to faster brake reactions (of similar strength) in all three assisted trials compared to the baseline, which additionally improved successively over time (T1–T3, T1 vs. T4, T2 vs. T4). Moreover, the drivers applied the gained knowledge from the learning phase to various new situations (transfer: faster brake reactions in T4 compared to T1 or T2). The well accepted and positively rated (helpful and understandable) two-stage collision warning can thus be recommended as it facilitates accident mitigation by earlier decelerations. Practice with advanced driver assistance systems (even in driving simulators) should be endorsed to maximize their benefits for traffic safety and accident prevention.


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  • Accession Number: 01673265
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 29 2018 3:24PM