Comparison of proposed countermeasures for dilemma zone at signalized intersections based on cellular automata simulations

The Type II dilemma zone describes the road segment to a signalized intersection where drivers have difficulties to decide either stop or go at the onset of yellow signal. Such phenomenon can result in an increased crash risk at signalized intersections. Different types of warning systems have been proposed to help drivers make decisions. Although the warning systems help to improve drivers’ behavior, they also have several disadvantages such as increasing rear-end crashes or red-light running (RLR) violations. In this study, a new warning system called pavement marking with auxiliary countermeasure (PMAIC) is proposed to reduce the dilemma zone and enhance the traffic safety at signalized intersections. The proposed warning system integrates the pavement marking and flashing yellow system which can provide drivers with better suggestions about stop/go decisions based on their arriving time and speed. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed warning system, this paper presents a cellular automata (CA) simulation study. The CA simulations are conducted for four different scenarios in total, including the typical intersection without warning system, the intersection with flashing green countermeasure, the intersection with pavement marking, and the intersection with the PMAIC warning system. Before the specific CA simulation analysis, a logistic regression model is calibrated based on field video data to predict drivers’ general stop/go decisions. Also, the rules of vehicle movements in the CA models under the influence by different warning systems are proposed. The proxy indicators of rear-end crash and potential RLR violations were estimated and used to evaluate safety levels for the different scenarios. The simulation results showed that the PMAIC countermeasure consistently offered best performance to reduce rear-end crash and RLR violation. Meanwhile, the results indicate that the flashing-green countermeasure could not effectively reduce either rear-end crash risk or RLR violations. Also, it is found that the pavement-marking countermeasure has positive effects on reducing the rear-end risk while it may increase the probability of RLR violation. Lastly, the implementation of the proposed warning system is discussed with the consideration of connected-vehicle technology. It is expected that the dilemma zone issues can be efficiently addressed if the proposed countermeasure can be employed within connected vehicle technology.


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  • Accession Number: 01669606
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: May 15 2018 3:50PM