MAINTENANCE OF STREET SPACES AND MOCHIBA (POSTS OF RESPONSIBILITY) IN EDO COMMONERS DISTRICT

江戸町方の道空間の存続と「持場」

The shogunate was responsible for controlling and managing the various activities conducted on the streets of Edo commoners district (chōninchi). The street spaces, on the other hand, were maintained by the townsman (chōnin) who lived in the commoners district. While the town commissioner (machi-bugyo), street commissioner (michi-bugyō) and the commissioner of engineering works (fushin-bugyō) were the shogunate officers in charge of supervising the work, the commoners led the actual maintenance work. Their task of maintaining street spaces (street functions and public safety) was assumed both in terms of workload and cost by the towns along the street, and the range managed by each town could be spatially. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate Mochiba (the posts of responsibility) that were spatial divisions to the town's management of street spaces and the feature of spatial maintenance system based on a case study of Minami tenma chō 2, Minami saya chō, Minami nushi chō, and Matsukawa chō.. This paper uses the term “street spaces” to comprehensively describe the human and built environment that evolves along the street.  The first section investigates how Mochiba (posts of responsibility) was positioned in the management system of the street spaces by the shogunate (machi-bugyō), the town commissioner). It points out that the town commissioner (machi-bugyō) strongly recognized the spatial range that the town (chō-jū) should be responsible for the maintenance and order around the 18th century. It correlated with the management system for street spaces was established by the shogunate by mandating an application process for the townsman's various management and construction activities carried out on the street in the 18th century as pointed out in the author's paper. Based on the above, The author presented the following hypothesis. Mochiba was equivalent to the range where the prefix attached to each house and lot (ie-yashiki), and had in the cooperativeness and exclusivity of the town (chō). In other words, it was not the principle set from above by the shogunate. Although the shogunate did not clearly make Mochiba legal system, they attempted to thoroughly enforce this control by dividing the street space into Mochiba (posts of responsibility) and assigning these Mochiba to the various towns and each owner of the residence. The following section analyzes the specific character of the Mochiba in commoners district (chōnin-chi), based on a case study of Minami tenma chō 2, Minami saya chō, Minami nushi chō, and Matsukawa chō. Therefore, the section was examined from three theme: Ban (maintaining public peace and order) and the restoration of the street and sewage (maintenance of street function) that it is the most basic in maintenance work of the street spaces by the town. This discussion gave that physical environmental conditions of street spaces prescribed an individual assumption of responsibility for maintenance and management by townsman (chō-nin) and chō. Lastly, the author would like to point out that the spatial feature of Mochiba (posts of responsibility) in commoners district. Then, the paper concludes with a discussion on the responsibility of the maintaining public safety and the maintenance of street function could be separated on one street through a case study of Mochiba was newly set or expanded.

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  • English
  • Japanese

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  • Accession Number: 01669227
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
  • Files: TRIS, JSTAGE
  • Created Date: Apr 30 2018 3:01PM