Sound-Proximity: 2-Factor Authentication against Relay Attack on Passive Keyless Entry and Start System

Passive keyless entry and start system has been widely used in modern cars. Car owners can open the door or start the engine merely by having the key in their pocket. PKES was originally designed to establish a communication channel between the car and its key within approximately one meter. However, the channel is vulnerable to relay attacks by which attackers unlock the door even if the key is out of range. Even though relay attacks have been recognized as a potential threat for over ten years, such attacks were thought to be impractical due to highly expensive equipment; however, the required cost is gradually practical. Recently, a relay attack has been demonstrated with equipment being sold only under $100. In this paper, the authors propose a sound-based proximity-detection method to prevent relay attacks on PKES systems. The sound is eligible to be applied to PKES because audio systems are commonly available in cars. The authors evaluate the method, considering environments where cars are commonly parked, and present the recording time satisfying both usability and security. In addition, the authors newly define an advanced attack, called the record-and-playback attack, for sound-based proximity detection, demonstrating that the method is robust to such an attack.


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  • Accession Number: 01664529
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Feb 28 2018 2:12PM