Have Emission Control Areas (ECAs) harmed port efficiency in Europe?

Ports in the European Union and North America have enforced environmental regulations on controlling SOₓ and NOₓ emissions from ships in their coastal areas known as Emission Control Areas (ECAs). This study uses two-stage approaches to examine whether ECA regulations impact the efficiency of ports operating in such areas. First, port efficiencies are estimated using non-radial slacks-based measure (SBM) Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models. The efficiency scores estimated by the SBM DEA models are then regressed on explanatory variables, including the ECA factor, and macroeconomic indicators using bootstrapped truncated regression (BTR) models. Panel data is collected on countries in EU ECAs and non-ECAs regarding such input variables as capital and labor, with cargo as an output variable. The results indicate that ECA regulations can harm port efficiency, reflecting concerns of policy-makers and industrial managers: the average efficiency loss from an ECA designation amounts to 0.058–0.066 on a scale of 0–1, accounting for a 15–18% loss from ECA ports’ average efficiency scores.


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  • Accession Number: 01660130
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Feb 2 2018 3:04PM