The Effect of Physical Maturation on ATV Head-on Collision Outcome: A Simulation Study

The body’s physical response to an ATV head-on collision will depend on the individual's weight, height, and mass distribution. In this study, Virtual Crash 3.0 (vCRASH, Americas, Inc., Newberry, Florida, USA) was used to simulate 2007 Yamaha Raptor ATV (Yamaha Motor Corporation, U.S.A., Cypress, CA) crashing into a wall with child models of different ages operating the vehicle to assess the potential outcome. The child models were males ages 6-19 years. United States 2007-2010 anthropometric reference data were used to identify the 50% percentile weights and heights for the models. Body segment masses were estimated using segment regression equations presented by Jensen and Nassas (1988). Children under 14 consistently hit the handlebars, thus they did not make impact with the wall. Every model that made impact with the wall hit at a linear velocity that may cause a concussion even at the lowest velocity of 24 km/hr when impact is a made with a hard surface. When the model made impact with a softer polyethylene foam pad, the potential for concussion was observed at ATV impact speeds of 48 km/hr and higher. Children under 16 tended to experience an angular velocity at or close to concussion threshold even at the slowest ATV speeds. Again, children 16 years and older did not cross the concussion threshold until the ATV was faster than 48 km/hr. The authors recommend that children under 16 should not operate an adult size ATV and that older children should not drive at speeds faster than 48 km/hr. In addition, helmets and other safety equipment should be worn at all times.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • This paper was sponsored by TRB committee ANB45 Standing Committee on Occupant Protection.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Transportation Research Board

    500 Fifth Street, NW
    Washington, DC  United States  20001
  • Authors:
    • Hegazy, Mostafa Afifi
    • Connor, Kathleen
    • Crickmore, Kendall
    • Abdel-Rahim, Ahmed
  • Conference:
  • Date: 2017


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Features: Figures; Photos; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: 15p
  • Monograph Title: TRB 96th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01628171
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: 17-06116
  • Files: TRIS, TRB, ATRI
  • Created Date: Dec 8 2016 12:29PM