Factors Affecting Driver Yielding Compliance at Uncontrolled Midblock Crosswalks on Low-Speed Roadways

Field studies were performed to compare the effectiveness of traffic control countermeasures commonly used at uncontrolled midblock crosswalks. Various crosswalk treatments were evaluated at 31 low-speed midblock crosswalks located near three public universities. The study locations included unmarked crosswalks, in addition to standard and continental crosswalk markings, some including an additional enhancement device such as the pedestrian hybrid beacon (PHB), rectangular rapid flashing beacon (RRFB), or an in-street R1–6 sign. Driver yielding compliance during staged pedestrian crossing events was used as the measure of effectiveness. To isolate the crosswalk treatment effects, several roadway and traffic characteristics were included in the analysis, including the crossing distance, median presence, vehicular and pedestrian volumes, travel lane of the subject vehicle, and the subject vehicle’s position in a queue. A mixed effects logistic regression model was used to account for correlation in yielding rates within the same sites as well as for unobserved heterogeneity across locations. The results indicate that the type of crosswalk treatment has a strong influence over driver yielding compliance. While yielding compliance improved substantially when crosswalk markings were used, the highest compliance rates were achieved when an additional enhancement device (i.e., RRFB, PHB, or R1–6 sign) was also provided. Yielding compliance showed little sensitivity to the particular travel lane of the subject vehicle at locations where a crosswalk enhancement device was used, further validating the effectiveness of these treatments. Finally, yielding compliance rates were generally higher across each of the crosswalk enhancement devices compared with prior studies performed in the same areas, suggesting compliance improves as drivers become more familiar with these devices.


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  • Accession Number: 01623134
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 9780309441940
  • Report/Paper Numbers: 17-04710
  • Files: PRP, TRIS, TRB, ATRI
  • Created Date: Jan 24 2017 3:15PM