Carbon Footprint and Sulphur Emissions for International Wine Distribution using Alternative Routeing and Packaging Scenarios

There is a large body of research related to carbon footprint reduction in supply chains and logistics from a wide range of sectors where the decarbonisation of freight transport is frequently explored from a single mode perspective and at domestic/regional level (Jardine, 2009; Maersk, 2013; Wiesmann, 2010). The decarbonisation of global freight transport chains needs to take into account a range of alternative transport modes and routes in addition to the decisions related to the alternative product packaging at source or closer to the demand points. This paper intends to address these shortcomings and the research presents a “gate to gate” carbon footprint and Sulphur calculations methodology related to the distribution of wine from Australia and Italy to the UK. The methodology adopted in this paper uses secondary data gathered from academic and industrial sources on the distribution of wine from source to market. These were used to evaluate the environmental impact of international wine transport to the UK from two sourcing areas: Italy and Australia. A number of options were evaluated to calculate the carbon footprint and Sulphur emissions of alternative route, mode and packaging combinations. The estimation of CO2e emissions incorporates three main elements - cargo mass, distance and transport mode whereas Sulphur emissions are derived from actual ship routing, engine power and travel times. The decision made related to the bottling of wine either at source or destination is also integrated into the model. The key findings are: there are major differences between the environmental footprint of different routing and packaging scenarios, the international shipping leg almost always has a much larger footprint than inland transport within the UK except in the hypothetical case of the rail scenario using flexitank (Italy). With reference to sulphur, the lowest cost scenario among the sea maximising options is also the lowest value for sulphur emissions and the general pattern is that there seems to be a linear relationship between costs and emissions for European wine shipments. However, the sea maximising scenario (scenario 2) for Australian wine shipments to UK appears to have higher Sulphur impact than alternative scenarios.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Features: Appendices; References; Tables;
  • Pagination: pp 115-129
  • Monograph Title: Proceedings of the International Forum on Shipping, Ports and Airports (IFSPA) 2015: Empowering Excellence in Maritime and Air Logistics: Innovation Management and Technology

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01609615
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 9789623677967
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Aug 8 2016 12:16PM