Progression of Human Factors Considerations for the In-Trail Procedure

The In-Trail Procedure (ITP) is one of the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) applications in the NextGen program. The Federal Aviation Administration, in partnership with United Airlines, is conducting an operational evaluation of the ADS-B ITP on revenue flights between the West Coast of the United States and various Pacific destinations. Part of this evaluation is a human factors assessment of the equipment and procedures from the users’ perspective. Here, the authors provide an update to the human factors issues identified in 2013 and show that pilots’ and controllers’ acceptance of the ITP maneuver has improved. Pilots see the ADS-B traffic display as a valuable tool for situation awareness and use it to increase flight efficiency/safety. While more interactive ITP training was suggested, pilots are comfortable interacting with the display and provided insights as to why ITP requests are so infrequent. Controllers are no longer confusing ADS-B ITP with the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract Climb/Descend Procedure and are no longer reluctant to approve a valid ITP request. Controllers’ concerns have been largely addressed with training and/or will be addressed with changes to the automation platform.

  • Record URL:
  • Corporate Authors:

    Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

    55 Broadway
    Cambridge, MA  United States  02142

    Federal Aviation Administration

    Human Factors Division
    Washington, DC  United States 
  • Authors:
  • Publication Date: 2016-3-16


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Digital/other
  • Features: Appendices; References;
  • Pagination: 20p

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01604575
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Report/Paper Numbers: DOT-VNTSC-FAA-16-08, DOT/FAA/TC-16/30
  • Contract Numbers: FB04C1
  • Created Date: Jul 1 2016 11:40AM