Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication in a heterogeneous wireless network – Performance evaluation

Connected Vehicle Technology (CVT) requires wireless data transmission between vehicles (V2V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I). Evaluating the performance of different network options for V2V and V2I communication that ensure optimal utilization of resources is a prerequisite when designing and developing robust wireless networks for CVT applications. Though dedicated short range communication (DSRC) has been considered as the primary communication option for CVT safety applications, the use of other wireless technologies (e.g., Wi-Fi, LTE, WiMAX) allow longer range communications and throughput requirements that could not be supported by DSRC alone. Further, the use of other wireless technology potentially reduces the need for costly DSRC infrastructure. In this research, the authors evaluated the performance of Het-Net consisting of Wi-Fi, DSRC and LTE technologies for V2V and V2I communications. An application layer handoff method was developed to enable Het-Net communication for two CVT applications: traffic data collection, and forward collision warning. The handoff method ensures the optimal utilization of available communication options (i.e., eliminate the need of using multiple communication options at the same time) and corresponding backhaul communication infrastructure depending on the connected vehicle application requirements. Field studies conducted in this research demonstrated that the use of Het-Net broadened the range and coverage of V2V and V2I communications. The use of the application layer handoff technique to maintain seamless connectivity for CVT applications was also successfully demonstrated and can be adopted in future Het-Net supported connected vehicle applications. A long handoff time was observed when the application switches from LTE to Wi-Fi. The delay is largely due to the time required to activate the 802.11 link and the time required for the vehicle to associate with the RSU (i.e., access point). Modifying the application to implement a soft handoff where a new network is seamlessly connected before breaking from the existing network can greatly reduce (or eliminate) the interruption of network service observed by the application. However, the use of a Het-Net did not compromise the performance of the traffic data collection application as this application does not require very low latency, unlike connected vehicle safety applications. Field tests revealed that the handoff between networks in Het-Net required several seconds (i.e., higher than 200 ms required for safety applications). Thus, Het-Net could not be used to support safety applications that require communication latency less than 200 ms. However, Het-Net could provide additional/supplementary connectivity for safety applications to warn vehicles upstream to take proactive actions to avoid problem locations. To validate and establish the findings from field tests that included a limited number of connected vehicles, ns-3 simulation experiments with a larger number of connected vehicles were conducted involving a DSRC and LTE Het-Net scenario. The latency and packet delivery error trend obtained from ns-3 simulation were found to be similar to the field experiment results.


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  • Accession Number: 01605383
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Jun 13 2016 9:48AM