Optimization of Breakwater and Quay Structures for the Port of Haifa Expansion Using Performance-Based Seismic Design

This paper addresses key considerations for the design of the expansion of the Port of Haifa, Israel container terminal in an area of moderately high seismicity for the development of several breakwaters/revetments and quays. Design-level ground motions were associated with a M 7.0 earthquake. The proposed port development is also exposed to waves from the Mediterranean Sea. The soil conditions posed several challenges for both static and seismic deformation potential. Both the reclaimed sand and some of the underlying dune sand were determined to be potentially liquefiable. In addition, a layer of soft clay resulted in the potential for excessive settlements and/or low bearing capacity for gravity-based structures. Furthermore, there was a shortage of available sand for reclamation in the dredging areas within the Port, requiring the sourcing of significant reclamation fill from an offshore borrow pit which contained sand with a relatively high fines content. Finally, the proposed terminal is located in environmentally sensitive Haifa Bay, resulting in strict limitations on dredging operations to protect marine life. In order to address these challenges and optimize the design, both static and seismic analyses, using a displacement limit approach, were carried out for breakwater, revetment and quay structures, and these, along with coastal and construction considerations, were used to: (1) select the most cost effective structure types, and subsequently, and (2) optimize their configurations. Analyses considered the quality of the reclamation fill, compaction using vibrocompaction and/or stone columns, and environmental concerns related to dredging and reclamation.


  • English

Media Info

  • Media Type: Web
  • Pagination: pp 283-292
  • Monograph Title: Ports 2016: Port Engineering

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 01605735
  • Record Type: Publication
  • ISBN: 9780784479902
  • Files: TRIS, ASCE
  • Created Date: Jun 7 2016 3:01PM