This article is a continuation of a study on eye fixation during a wayfinding walk of downtown Rome, which has heavy traffic. The first part reported on the state of route selection and wayfinding behavior in an unfamiliar overseas city, from a walking experiment that covers all the major tourist spots in Rome. This article will focus on “eye-fixation tendencies during the wayfinding walk.” In other words, the main purposes of this article are to (1) clarify the relationship between eye-fixation tendencies and wayfinding behavior between participants with different degrees of spatial cognition and walking routes, (2) examine the relationship between attentional tendencies and city space characteristics, (3) clarify the relationship between participant attributes and eye-fixation attributes by “object of eye fixation” and by “building façade site, ” (4) clarify the setup of “textual information” (particularly “storefront signs” and “road signs”) and eye-fixation tendencies in downtown Rome, which has heavy traffic, and 5) analyze the participants' eye movement patterns. As a result, the following points were found: (1) The frequency of eye fixation over walking distance by attribute was fewer during the initial wayfinding walk, and mean frequency of eye fixation was overwhelmingly greater during “head-turning behavior, ” and by nodes, most marked in the “square.” (2) The mean rate of eye fixation by object of eye fixation during the wayfinding walk overall was highest for the “buildings' façades, ” and extremely low for “storefront signs” and “road signs, ” which were assumed to be prominent sources of information. By attribute, the group with a higher degree of spatial cognition apprehended subjects such as “buildings' façades, ” which were the clues for the wayfinding walk. (3) Mean time of eye fixation by attribute was rather short for the group with a low degree of spatial cognition, and by object of eye fixation, longest for “road signs.” (4) While the mean eye fixation distance during the wayfinding walk overall was 16.6m, it was somewhat shorter during “head-turning behavior” and “stopping/staying, ” and by attribute, was shortest for the group with a low degree of spatial cognition. (5) Mean height of eye fixation for all sections tended to increase for longer eye fixation distances. (6) The most frequent storefront signs installed on the route of the participants' wayfinding walk were “wall-mounted signs, ” followed by “channel lettering signs” and “window lettering signs, ” and there were extremely few “protruding signs” that are frequently seen in Japan. Similarly, among the types of “road signs” installed, there were overwhelmingly many “regulatory signs, ” such as “no parking signs, ” and of the “directional signs” that are helpful in wayfinding walks, there were few “road names” and “facility/directional signs.” (7) Of the frequency of eye fixation to “traffic” by vehicle type, automobiles accounted for 70.1% of the whole, followed by motorbikes (19.3%), and by mode, “parked vehicles” stood out regardless of section. (8) In terms of eye movement patterns over the entire wayfinding walk, “fixed eye fixation” and “fluid eye fixation” stood out for all attributes.


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  • Accession Number: 01599614
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
  • Files: TRIS, JSTAGE
  • Created Date: Apr 30 2016 3:03PM