Multihop-Cluster-Based IEEE 802.11p and LTE Hybrid Architecture for VANET Safety Message Dissemination

Several vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) studies have focused on communication methods based on IEEE 802.11p, which forms the standard for wireless access for vehicular environments. In networks employing IEEE 802.11p only, the broadcast storm and disconnected network problems at high and low vehicle densities, respectively, degrade the delay and delivery ratio of safety message dissemination. Recently, as an alternative to the IEEE 802.11p-based VANET, the usage of cellular technologies has been investigated due to their low latency and wide-range communication. However, a pure cellular-based VANET communication is not feasible due to the high cost of communication between the vehicles and the base stations and the high number of handoff occurrences at the base station, considering the high mobility of the vehicles. This paper proposes a hybrid architecture, namely, VMaSC–LTE, combining IEEE 802.11p-based multihop clustering and the fourth-generation (4G) cellular system, i.e., Long-Term Evolution (LTE), with the goal of achieving a high data packet delivery ratio (DPDR) and low delay while keeping the usage of the cellular architecture at a minimum level. In VMaSC–LTE, vehicles are clustered based on a novel approach named Vehicular Multihop algorithm for Stable Clustering (VMaSC). The features of VMaSC are cluster head (CH) selection using the relative mobility metric calculated as the average relative speed with respect to the neighboring vehicles, cluster connection with minimum overhead by introducing a direct connection to the neighbor that is already a head or a member of a cluster instead of connecting to the CH in multiple hops, disseminating cluster member information within periodic hello packets, reactive clustering to maintain the cluster structure without excessive consumption of network resources, and efficient size- and hop-limited cluster merging mechanism based on the exchange of cluster information among CHs. These features decrease the number of CHs while increasing their stability, therefore minimizing the usage of the cellular architecture. From the clustered topology, elected CHs operate as dual-interface nodes with the functionality of the IEEE 802.11p and LTE interface to link the VANET to the LTE network. Using various key metrics of interest, including DPDR, delay, control overhead, and clustering stability, the authors demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed architecture compared with both previously proposed hybrid architectures and alternative routing mechanisms, including flooding and cluster-based routing via extensive simulations in ns-3 with the vehicle mobility input from the Simulation of Urban Mobility. The proposed architecture also allows achieving higher required reliability of the application quantified by the DPDR at the cost of higher LTE usage measured by the number of CHs in the network.


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  • Accession Number: 01598016
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 19 2016 3:58PM