Minimizing CO₂e emissions by setting a road toll

The main purpose of this paper is to develop a bi-level pricing model to minimize the CO₂e emissions and the total travel time in a small road network. In the lower level of the model, it is assumed that users of the road network find a dynamic user equilibrium which minimizes the total costs of those in the system. For the higher level of the model, different road toll strategies are applied in order to minimize the CO₂e emissions. The model has been applied to an illustrative example. It shows the effects on traffic flows, revenues, total time and CO₂e emissions for different numbers of servers collecting tolls and different pricing strategies over a morning peak traffic period. The results show that the CO₂e emissions produced can be significantly affected by the number of servers and the type of toll strategy employed. The model is also used to find the best toll strategy when there is a constraint on the revenue that is required to be raised from the toll and how this affects the emissions produced. Further runs compare strategies to minimize the CO₂e emissions with those that minimize total travel time in the road system. In the illustrative example, the results for minimizing CO₂e emissions are shown to be similar to the results obtained from minimizing the total travel time.


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  • Accession Number: 01597591
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS
  • Created Date: Apr 12 2016 4:44PM