In order to determine the "best" level of restraint to achieve optimal use of a given resource, it is necessary to decide on the objective function to be mazimized (or minimized). As restraint operates by affecting behavior, such a function must include valuations of the changes in behavior observed. A measure of consumers' surplus must therefore be included and valuations obtained for comfort convenience, and similar variables affecting behavior. This approach to the evaluation of restraint systems is illustrated by two examples: (a) Average link model, in which a homogeneous urban area is represented by the average major road in the area. Total flow of car and bus travelers along this average road is fixed, although present car travelers change their travel mode when relative travel costs alter (due, for example, to introduction of road pricing). All-day travel costs for all travelers and vehicles (cars, buses, taxis and goods vehicles) were obtained and a minimum overall travel cost was computed by optimising items such as bus loadings, bus stop frequency, relative density of bus routes and amounts of private car restraint. The losses in comfort and convenience associated with a swtich from car to bus travel are estimated by considering the present situation and then imposing a rising road pricing charge. Using this method of representing comfort and convenience costs, an optimum level of private car restraint was obtained. (b) A newtork approach--a model designed to reproduce the behavior of travelers moving over a company network. Here, travelers are offered a choice of routes for a given trip, over roads with widely different characteristics. The pattern of traffic flow produced is therefore a direct consequence of the balance between money time, and distance that the average traveler can be observed to accept. The valuation of any specific fiscal policy is then a matter of applying the charges and tracing the behavioral effects through to the new situation provided.

  • Supplemental Notes:
    • Proceedings of the Symposium on Techniques of IMPR.
  • Corporate Authors:

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

    2, rue André Pascal
    Paris,   France  75775 Paris Cedex 16
  • Authors:
    • WIGAN, M R
    • Webster, F V
    • Oldfield, R H
    • Bamford, T J
  • Publication Date: 1973


  • English

Media Info

Subject/Index Terms

Filing Info

  • Accession Number: 00262935
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Source Agency: Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL)
  • Report/Paper Numbers: Conf Paper
  • Files: ITRD, TRIS
  • Created Date: Nov 20 1981 12:00AM