STUDIES ON THE SOCIAL COSTS OF URBAN ROAD TRANSPORT (NOISE AND POLLUTION)
The social costs of urban road transport in terms of noise, air pollution, visual intrusion, pedestrian/vehicle conflict and severance, are large and growing. A model of an economy is developed in which negative external effects of this type occur, and the tax on polluters required to reach a Pareto optimum is derived. If the model is to be made operational, the disadvantaged for those affected must be measured and valued. Recent research work on measurement is discussed for each environmental factor in turn. The use of these predictive techniques to quantify the environmental impact of roads and traffic in terms of numbers of people affected, the duration and degree of impact, is described with reference to a case study. Five methods of environmental evaluation are being developed concurrently in the United Kingdom. These are (1) analysis of the housing market, (2) analysis of amenity--improving expenditure, (3) game methods, (4) simulation techniques, and (5) social surveys. A review of these suggests that economic valuations of environmental effects will not be obtained for some time. There are thus both theoretical and practical difficulties in devising a charging system to allow fully for all the social costs created by vehicle users--but charges may nevertheless have a role to play in the control of urban transport pollution.
- Report of the 18th Round Table on Transport Economics; Paris, France; April 13-14, 1972.
Department of the Environment, England2 Marsham Street
London SW1P 3EB, England
- Lasiere, A
- Bowers, P
- Publication Date: 1972-4
- Features: Appendices; References;
- Pagination: 136 p.
- TRT Terms: Costs; Economics; Environmental impacts; Evaluation; Externalities; Mathematical models; Pedestrian vehicle interface; Pollution; Social impacts; Socioeconomic factors; Taxation; Traffic conflicts; Traffic noise; Urban areas
- Uncontrolled Terms: Models
- Subject Areas: Administration and Management; Economics; Environment; Finance; Highways; Society;
- Accession Number: 00261309
- Record Type: Publication
- Files: TRIS
- Created Date: Oct 22 1974 12:00AM