REPORT ON ANALYSIS OF URBAN WORK TRIPS

MOST WORKERS ARE EMPLOYED AWAY FROM THEIR HOMES AND TRAVEL BETWEEN HOMES AND WORK PLACES AT APPROXIMATELY THE SAME TIMES. THIS HAS CONSIDERABLE EFFECT ON CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE CIRCULATION SYSTEMS OF CITIES. THE DECISIONS MADE BY WORKERS AND HEADS OF FAMILIES IN SELECTING WORK PLACES AND IN FINDING PLACES TO LIVE, IN THE AGGREGATE, HAVE IMPORTANT EFFECTS UPON THE PHYSICAL PATTERNING OF CITIES. LOCATION DECISIONS ALSO INFLUENCE LABOR FORCE AVAILABILITY IN VARIOUS PARTS OF THE URBAN AREA. WHILE THE HOME-WORK-PLACE RELATIONSHIP IS CLEARLY AN OPERATIVE FACTOR AT ALL TIMES IN PROVIDING LIMITS FOR HOME-LOCATION DECISIONS, IT MAY SELDOM BE THE PRIME FACTOR IN LOCATION CHOICE. FROM A STATISTICAL VIEWPOINT, TRIPS TO WORK CONSTITUTE THE LARGEST SINGLE GROUPING OF TRIPS, BY PURPOSE, OF ALL TRIPS LEAVING URBAN RESIDENCES. IN METROPOLITAN AREAS, TRIPS FROM HOME TO WORK AND BACK AGAIN REPRESENT GENERALLY ABOUT ONE-THIRD OF ALL TRIPS MADE, AND UP TO HALF OF THE TRIPS MADE TO CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS MAY BE OF WORK-PURPOSE. WORK-TRAVEL CONSUMES MUCH TIME AND ENERGY. A LARGE PROPORTION OF WORK-TRAVEL IN METROPOLITAN AREAS IS ARDUOUS AND LONG. MANY TRIPS INVOLVE TWO OR MORE CHANGES OF MODE OF TRAVEL. THESE TWO EXAMPLES WILL HELP TO GIVE AN IDEA OF THE SCALE OF THE JOURNEY-TO-WORK AND ITS COSTS. ESTIMATES MADE FOR BOTH THE LONDON CENTRAL AREA AND LOWER MANHATTAN INDICATE THAT TIME SPENT IN THE JOURNEY-TO-WORK LENGTHENS THE WORK-DAY BY A GROSS AMOUNT OF ALMOST 20 PERCENT. THUS, FOR THE APPROXIMATE FIGURE OF 3 MILLION EMPLOYED PERSONS WHO TRAVEL INTO LOWER MANHATTAN EACH WEEKDAY, OVER HALF A MILLION MAN-DAYS ARE CONSUMED IN TRAVEL EN ROUTE. DISCERNIBLE TRENDS IN URBAN SETTLEMENT APPEAR TO INDICATE, FOR FUTURE YEARS, LONGER TRIPS TO WORK FOR MANY, AND LENGTHY JOURNIES-TO-WORK FOR INCREASING PROPORTIONS OF THE DWELLERS IN METROPOLITAN AREAS. ON THE OTHER HAND, THE LONGER TRIPS TO WORK MEAN WIDER AREAS FROM WHICH EMPLOYERS MAY ATTRACT WORKERS AND A GREATER RANGE OF PLACES AND TYPES OF OCCUPATION FOR THE INDIVIDUAL WAGE-EARNERS. THESE CONSIDERATIONS INDICATE THE NATURE OF THE JOURNEY-TO-WORK AS A FACTOR OF CONNECTION BETWEEN THE UTILIZATION OF LAND FOR CIRCULATION ROUTES, AND FOR RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES. FROM THIS, IT FOLLOWS THAT UNDERSTANDING OF URBAN LIFE WILL BE ENHANCED AND PLANNING FOR CITIES WILL BE AIDED BY FURTHER STUDY OF WORK-ORIENTED TRAVEL. WIDER UNDERSTANDING OF THE RELATION OF HOMES TO WORK PLACES WILL AID IN DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES CONCERNING FUTURE ORGANIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL METROPOLITAN AREAS. WITH EVIDENT TRENDS TO DECENTRALIZATION OF INDUSTRY AND GROWTH OF LOW-DENSITY RESIDENTIAL SUBURBS, DECISIONS FOR RENEWING THE CENTRAL AREAS OR CITIES, OR FOR DEVELOPING OUTLYING SUBCENTERS OF RESIDENCE AND/OR EMPLOYMENT CANNOT BE MADE WITHOUT ASSUMPTIONS CONCERNING THE WORK-TRAVEL OF INDIVIDUALS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER IS TO PRESENT SOME OF THE FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS MADE IN STUDIES OF THE JOURNEY-TO-WORK CONDUCTED AT THE INSTITUTE FOR URBAN STUDIES. THE PRESENT PAPER DOES NOT PRESENT DETAILS OF THE ANALYSES OF PATTERNS OF TRIP GENERATION AND CONFLUENCE. THIS PAPER BRIEFLY DESCRIBES SOME ASPECTS OF WORK-TRIPS AS A PART OF URBAN TRAFFIC, AND PRESENTS SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS DERIVED FROM THE RECENT STUDIES. /AUTHOR/

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  • Accession Number: 00241086
  • Record Type: Publication
  • Files: TRIS, TRB
  • Created Date: Sep 16 1994 12:00AM